各國領導人之間如何通話?


ANN@The China Post

美國侯任總統特朗普正面臨當選以來最大規模的批評聲浪,當地時間2日他與臺灣地區領導人蔡英文通電話引來國內外的抨擊、質疑和嘲諷。特朗普在推特上強調電話是蔡英文打給他的,且主要談話內容是祝賀,但他這一舉動打破了美台1979年“斷交”以來37年的外交慣例,釋放出嚴重的錯誤信號。美國國內有人擔心激怒北京,也有人不滿特朗普不懂外交以至於犯下“菜鳥的錯誤”,白宮則迅速澄清“美國的兩岸政策沒有變化”。中國已向美方提出“嚴正交涉”,外長王毅表示,“這只是臺灣方面搞的一個小動作,根本不可能改變國際社會已經形成的一個中國格局”。事實上,出於保密等原因,各國領導人之間通電話有一套十分複雜的程式需要遵守,下面我們就一起來看看。

Hi, it’s Putin, is Obama in? 嗨,我是普京,奧巴馬在嗎?

“Hello, can I speak to the president?” is not an off-the-cuff request an operator is ever likely to hear from a world leader. 電話接線員不可能從世界領導人那裡聽到像是“你好,我能和總統講話嗎?”這樣冒失的請求的。

By the time the initial pleasantries are exchanged between heads of state, the groundwork will have been done behind the scenes by the leaders’ respective staff. 在元首們互相寒暄之前,各方的工作人員要做好準備工作。

“When there is an established relationship between two countries, it might be as simple as one situation room calling its counterpoint and saying my head of state wants to speak to yours,” says Stephen Yates, who worked as deputy national security adviser to former US Vice-President Dick Cheney. 前美國副總統迪克•切尼的副國家安全顧問史蒂芬•耶茨表示,“如果兩國建立了外交關係,那麼元首間通電話可能就和戰情室的通話一樣簡單,可以說我國領導人希望和貴國領導人通話。”

When countries are in less frequent contact, an ambassador may make the first formal request on their leader’s behalf. They will set out the proposed agenda and reasons for the call and, if agreed, the reciprocal team would then work it into busy schedules. 當兩國接觸不頻繁時,一國大使可能會代表本國領導人首先提出正式請求。他們將提出議程安排和通話理由,如果獲得同意的話,雙方團隊就會將通話排進繁忙的日程表。

A helping hand for big issues and small talk 重大問題和閒談都需要助手

World leaders are typically well briefed before speaking to each other. 世界領導人在互相交談之前通常都詳細瞭解了情況。

In the US, the president is given a dossier from the National Security Council (NSC), the principal US advisory body on national security and foreign policy. 在美國,為總統提供相關材料的是國家安全委員會,這是美國國家安全和外交政策的主要諮詢機構。

If it is a simple courtesy call, the information provided may be basic, including details on who initiated contact, and two or three recommended talking points. There may also be some need-to-know personal information, such as a reminder to ask after a sick husband or wife. 如果只是簡單的問候電話,可能需要提供的基本資訊包括通話發起人是誰以及兩三個建議的話題。有時也可能要瞭解一些個人資訊,例如,如果對方丈夫或妻子生病了,需要提醒本國元首問候一下。

If the topic is sensitive, the NSC will offer the president an additional short briefing, and then listen in on the call. 如果通話話題很敏感,國家安全委員會將為總統額外提供一份簡報,然後在總統旁邊聽他們通話。