才過七個月 今年美國槍擊案件數幾乎追平去年 | Mass shootings so far this year almost reach 2018 levels

With every new tragedy, another 'strong' campaign
FILE - In this Aug. 7, 2019 file photo, a pedestrian passes a makeshift memorial for the slain and injured victims of a mass shooting that occurred in the Oregon District early Sunday morning in Dayton, Ohio. Ever since “Boston Strong” became a rallying cry after the Boston Marathon bombing, the idea of “strong” has become an inescapable part of how this country heals after tragedy. (AP Photo/John Minchillo, File)

【看英文中國郵報學英文】2019年才過了七個月,美國的大規模槍擊案例已經幾乎追平2018年一整年發生的數量。

Just seven months into 2019, the U.S. has experienced almost as many mass killings as occurred in all of 2018.

從美聯社、東北大學及今日美國匯集的資料庫顯示,加上德州及俄亥俄州前後腳發生的大規模槍擊案,今年的槍擊案已經來到23起並造成131人喪生。去年美國總共發生25起槍殺案,奪走140條生命。

Back-to-back mass shootings in Texas and Ohio brought the total number of mass killings so far this year to 23, leaving 131 people dead. There were 25 mass killings in 2018, claiming 140 lives, according to a database compiled by The Associated Press, Northeastern University and USA Today.

此資料庫從2006年開始追蹤大規模槍擊案件,發現此次的德州艾爾帕索及俄亥俄州岱頓鎮的屠殺事件與之前的案例許多相似之處,包括犯案者射殺自己的家人(岱頓鎮為此種案例)、加害者年紀很輕、還有行兇者在犯案後自殺或被警察射殺的趨勢。

The database tracks every mass killing dating back to 2006, and the El Paso and Dayton massacres had traits that were similar to many earlier incidents. That includes shooting a family member while carrying out a mass killing, which happened in Dayton; the young age of the perpetrators; and the tendency of the shooters to commit suicide or get killed by police.

以下是部分重點

Here are some takeaways:

 

從數字總結

OVERALL NUMBERS

2017年因為拉斯維加斯的屠殺,造成全年總共有高達225人在32起的槍擊案中身亡。2018年在公開場所發生的槍擊案例激增,其中包括了德州及佛羅里達州的校園槍擊案。

The last three years have seen several fluctuations in mass killing numbers. In 2017, 225 people died in 32 mass killings, driven by the massacre in Las Vegas. In 2018, the year was marked by a surge in mass killings in public places, including schools in Texas and Florida.

平均來說,美國每年有29起大規模的攻擊案件。

A typical year has roughly 29 mass killings.

大規模攻擊案的定義是,不包含加害者自己,至少殺害了四條以上的人命。今年美國已有16州發生過此種案件,有四起發生在加州。

Mass killings — defined as killings involving four or more fatalities, not including the killer — have occurred in 16 states this year. California has experienced four of them.

 

加害者的家人也是受害者

FAMILY MEMBERS KILLED

數據顯示,家庭暴力在此類案例中並不罕見,從2006年算起,74件在公開場所的攻擊案裡裡有八起加害者射殺了自己的家人。加害者會先行殺害家人,父母手足等,再將殺害目標轉移至其他人。

The majority of mass killings involve domestic violence, and eight of 74 public mass shootings since 2006 involved the killing of a blood relative, the data shows. The shooter’s parent, sibling, cousin, nephew or niece was shot first and then the perpetrator sought out others to kill.

2012年的桑迪·胡克小學校園槍擊案中,20歲的亞當·藍札在殺害26名兒童及學校員工前,先在位於康乃狄克州紐頓郡的家裡射殺了自己的母親。

Before 20-year-old Adam Lanza killed 26 children and staff at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012, he had fatally shot his mother in their Newtown, Connecticut home.

 

年輕的槍手

YOUNG KILLERS

資料庫顯示許多大規模槍擊案行兇者是年輕的白人男性。

The AP/USA Today/Northeastern database shows that many mass shootings are committed by a certain demographic: young, white men.

大部分美國的大規模槍擊案加害者是男性,將近一半的加害者是白人。

Most mass shootings in the U.S. are carried out by men, with white men making up nearly 50 percent of the shooters, the database shows.

公開場所的攻擊案加害者年齡中位數是28歲,比那些對家庭進行攻擊的行兇者年輕許多。

The median age of a public mass shooter is 28; significantly lower than the median age of a person who commits a mass shooting of their family, according to the database.

2006迄今有12起槍擊案的殺手小於或等於21歲,包括這次德州艾爾帕索的21歲嫌犯。

Since 2006, 12 mass shootings have been committed by gunmen 21 or younger. That includes the 21-year-old suspected gunman in El Paso.

 

被捕或者被殺

ARRESTED OR KILLED

在公開場所的槍擊案裡過半的行兇者在犯案後自殺或被警察射殺。

More than half of public mass shooters either kill themselves on the scene or are shot by police.

藍札自殺了,2017年在拉斯維加斯音樂節上殺死58人並傷害422人的史蒂芬·帕多克也自殺了。同樣在犯案後自殺的還有造成33人死亡的2007年維吉尼亞理工大學校園槍擊案的加害者,今年在維吉尼亞灘市射殺了12人的前市府員工,還有2011年患有精神疾病,在內華達州連鎖餐廳IHop殺死4人的加害者。至於奧蘭多市夜店案的槍手則是被警察射殺

Lanza killed him selves, as did Stephen Paddock, the man who killed 58 people and wounded 422 attending a country music festival in Las Vegas in 2017. So did the man who killed 33 at Virginia Tech in 2007; the former municipal worker who murdered 12 in Virginia Beach this year; and the mentally ill man who gunned down four at an IHop restaurant in Nevada in 2011. The Pulse nightclub shooter was killed by police in Orlando.

今年七月加州大蒜節槍擊案的犯案者也在開槍後自殺。

The man who opened fire at the Gilroy Garlic Festival in July also committed suicide.

前美國心理學協會現任天普大學心理學教授法蘭克法利表示,加害者們「反正最後都是一死」的想法是造成他們犯案的動機。

“They obviously went through the thought process of ‘I may end up dead,’” said Frank Farley, a Temple University psychology professor and former president of the American Psychological Association. “And did it anyway.”