【看英文中國郵報學英文】丹尼爾·布倫「Daniel Buren」以其打破常規、具永久展示性的場造藝術(in situ)在藝術史上留下一席之地，他的作品表現出藝術的另一視角—聚焦在藝術創作的過程以作為作品表徵對藝術自主性之漠視的反叛。
Daniel Buren is a figure to go down in art history for his unconventional in situ permanent displays that present art in a way highlighting the creative process as opposed to the representation of pieces that disregard autonomous art.
這位來自法國的概念藝術家創造了 「in situ」這個新詞來傳達其作品與周圍環境的連結。他反對傳統呈現藝術的形式，因此在他的作品中少有可移位或能脫離環境脈絡的。他的作品多可歸類為裝置藝術，因為裝置藝術的理念與他對創作的信念最相符。
The French conceptual artist has coined the term “in situ” for the connection between his work and where it takes place. He disapproved traditional ways of presenting art, thus making it rare to find his pieces that are mobile and lacking context. His choice often falls under installation art as this concept aligns best with his own creative beliefs.
來自觀者的反思與互動 | A Reflection and Interaction from the Viewers
Contrary to all expectations, the artist believes that photographs do not capture the actual essence of art, rather only represent “souvenirs” of the initial piece. The process by which he takes his conceptual work and merges it into the public realm will always be a vital, affluential and bona fide practice.
Buren有許多著名的作品，包括在1986年初展時便引起爭議「兩個平台」(Les deux plateau)。這座3000平方公尺的雕像矗立於巴黎皇家宮殿花園之中，挑戰歷史遺跡是否可以作為畫家揮灑創作之素材的倫理問題，在當時掀起熱議。
He is renowned for pieces such as “Les deux plateau” which sparked controversy in 1986 when it was first put on display. The 3,000 square meter sculpture in the courtyard of the Royal Palace in Paris made the public question the ethics behind using historical sites as a canvas for artists.
他於2016年五月至2017年四月為路易威登(Louis Vuitton)創作並展出的裝置藝術 「Observatory of Light」 由12片玻璃「船帆」作為外殼，使用3600片玻璃濾色片等距排列，包含他最具標誌性的白條紋在內13種不同色彩相映成趣，交織成獨特鮮明的燈光效果，將觀眾包圍在其中。
An installation for Louis Vuitton in France named “Observatory of Light” was made and displayed from May 2016 to April 2017. It contained 12 “sails” of glass shards that created unique vibrant amalgamations of light that enveloped viewers. Buren utilized 3,600 pieces of glass that were positioned equidistance from each other and varied in 13 different colors which accompanied his signature white stripes.
Buren令人屏息的公共藝術已經為許多國家的市容增添光彩，而他在英國的首座永久性裝置藝術也於2017年完成了。名為「Diamonds and Circles」，在新翻修的托登罕公路地鐵站(Tottenham Court Road station)內，風格強烈的幾何圖案嵌於蓋好的玻璃牆之間，鮮活的菱形與圓形搭上Buren的經典黑白條紋交疊出層次感，讓數百萬的通勤市民沐浴在品味不凡的當代藝術之中。
Buren’s breathtaking public artworks have adorned several countries all the same, he finished his first permanent public commission in the United Kingdom. “Diamonds and Circles” revamps Tottenham Court Road station and is fixed within the prebuilt glass walls. It layers vibrant diamonds and circles with Buren’s signature stripes of white alternating with black. This project offers millions of Tube users a taste of high-end, fantastic contemporary art.
In situ works such as this one exist parallel to the site that were prompted in. Specific features of the site are analyzed and considered, these inspire and allow a transformation of the space. Features of a site that are considered are the architecture, entrances, exits, windows, corridors and layout of rooms.
Other aspects of the space that are considered are far more metaphysical and significant, things like political, social and economic forces within the society or community. Since his work considers various factors, there is no doubt that they are each unique and meaningful to the site in which they exist.
For these reasons, Buren’s work represents the scenarios of mundane existence and refuses the ideal that art is for the elite’s entertainment. His art exists to encourage reflection and interaction from the viewers.
在托登罕公路地鐵站首次亮相的「Diamonds and Circles」，其概念於2008年就被提出了。當時Buren獲邀在車站展出自己作品，他的任務成為將整個車站翻新為倫敦的核心交匯樞紐之計畫的一部分。
“Diamonds and Circles” premiere at Tottenham Court Road station was conceptualized in 2008, when Buren was offered the chance to showcase his art. His commission was part of a scheme to reconstruct the station as a key interchange port in London. He completed this project in 2017.
Buren has stated on his most recent work that utilizing public areas for him is thrilling and it morphs the area’s impact on passerby “connections between all of these things… Museums attract only a portion of the population. The public in the Tube station is everyone, and there is a constant flux of people running both ways. I want to offer them a beautiful bubble of oxygen for the spirit.”
Each entrance and exit of the station were given “distinct identities” and this was particularly emphasized by Buren. He stated that it was “natural” to do so and make the entire structure unique. During another interview, Buren discussed the impact that his piece had on the daily users of the Metro and he emphasized the furious movement of travelers and the trains juxtaposed the stillness and vibrancy of the art.
The purpose of the installation was to make people stop and pace their lives and consider its symbolism. Buren finds it fascinating that there is contrast between motion and speed, the concept of underground where people disappear and emerge while there is rapid movement.
The piece brings the vivid and extraordinary world of art into the average daily commutes of the public. The installation was completed when the final cabinet topping off at 2.4 meters. It contained similar motifs and symbols as the rest of the installation. His work on Tottenham Court road station joins previous glass mosaics made by Eduardo Paolozzi which made their debut in 1984.
Stripes are Buren’s signature and he is colloquially known as “The Stripe Guy”. They remain a key feature of his works because of their simplistic and repetitive pattern. Each stripe is the equidistance apart at 8.7cm per stripe and alternate between white and another color, this remains constant in all his pieces.
Its significance pays homage to his French ethnicity but also portrays the theme of occupying space and expression within space rather than space itself. The stripes are a radical oeuvre which are set apart by his use of “seeing tool” through which art is represented outside of its traditional norms and rules.
「思映之間」在環狀線板橋站遇見大師美學 | ‘In Between Reflections’ at Banqiao Station
Less know to the general public, “Sans Titre,” completed in 2002, decorates the outside of a Taiwanese local high school. Most people don’t know, Buren has made several visits to Taiwan where he recently unveiled another in situ piece at the Banqiao MRT station.
The first section of the new MRT Circular Line started operations in December 2019 with Banqiao Y15 Station sitting at its heart with its colorful design made of stripes and LED lights. The station boasts the artist’s iconic stripe pattern in eight different colors that are used through the platforms and some of the ceilings of the metro station, the pillars under the station and its north facade.
To begin, two LED lights are suspended from the ceiling of the station above the embarkation areas. Their dimension is 74.3 meters long and 2 meters wide. They are each made up of 427 strips of length 2 meters and 87 millimeters wide spaced from each other by a vacuum of 87 millimeters. That’s a total of 854 LED strips.
All the strips are assembled on a rear frame that allows their attachment to the ceiling and the power supply wiring. LEDs are multi-color under DMX type electronic control to program light effects. The initial scenario proposed for this light installation is as follows: The two banners are illuminated every hour, for eight hours, three times a day according to the following scenario:
On the north facade of the building, the artist also deployed a decorative frame in black and white in the form of sinusoidal wave. This sinusoid has a wavelength of 42.65 meters and an amplitude of 8 meters. Its total length is 101.58 meters. The total area (excluding windows and trellises) is 613 m². The pattern used to make this frame is the same pattern used for the stairs of the station. These 1,218 mm x 1,218 mm panels are fixed on the facade. They are made of enameled sheet, painted black and white.
Meanwhile, two large staircases are clad with decorative panels made of enameled metal sheets measuring 1,218 cm x 1,218 cm. The patterns on these panels include bands and spaces between the strips that have a width of 87 mm. This dimension of 87 mm regulate the position of all panels from the first to the last, taking into account the space required for joints between panels.
This cladding is deployed on the side walls, on the walls facing the stairs and on the ceilings. The dressing consists of 8 different patterns in black and white, or in white and 8 colors. Each staircase features the mirror-colored patterns, on one of the side walls, the black and white patterns, on the other side wall the colorful one. These motifs fit on the front walls and ceilings to meet the central axis of the staircase that is the break line between color and black and white, forming a virtual mirror.
This project has two elements made on each of the two concourses. First, the motifs on glazed parts. The printing of vertical stripes on the glass parts of the embarkation platform. These vertical bands are made either by engraving on the glass, or by application of paint or white adhesive.
They are 87 mm wide and spaced 87 mm apart. These patterns are applied to the glass railings of the connecting bridges between the platforms. Second, the coloring of the lacquered steel pillars located between the glazed parts. Each of the 15 pillars boasts a rainbow color.
位於車站下方，支撐Y15車站量體的12個墩柱披上了共96個2.088 x 2.088公尺的釉彩金屬板，每個墩柱以8片裝飾。兩片鑲版合併起來就有4.176公尺高。
96 panels of 2.088 x 2.088 meters enameled metal sheet. Each pillar is dressed with eight panels. On a height of 4,176 meters, the height of 2 panels.
The eight motifs inscribed on the panels are identical on each pillar but one pillar out of two is in black and white while the other is colored of the eight colors: six black and white pillars and six pillars in eight colors. The colors are identical to those used for the stairways.