免疫力低接種疫苗有效嗎?美研究曝特殊病患注意事項 | Will COVID-19 vaccines work if I have a weak immune system?

Will COVID-19 vaccines work if I have a weak immune system? (AP Illustration/Peter Hamlin)

【看CP學英文】如果我的免疫力低,疫苗對我會有效嗎?對於較缺乏抵抗力的族群,疫苗效果也許沒有一般正常人來得好,但是仍會提供一定程度的保護力。

Will COVID-19 vaccines work if I have a weak immune system? Probably not as well as they do in healthy people, but the shots should offer some protection.

這也是為什麼免疫系統因疾病或因服用特殊藥物下降的人仍應接種疫苗,而周遭的親朋好友是否接種疫苗,也會成為能否成功阻止病毒擴散的重要關鍵。

It’s why vaccinations are still recommended for people with immune systems weakened by disease or certain medications. It’s also important that your family, friends, and caregivers get vaccinated, which will make it far less likely that they pass on the virus.

在美國,大約3%的成人免疫力低弱,其中包括愛滋病(HIV or AIDS)病患、器官移植者、癌症病患,以及患有類風濕性關節炎 (rheumatoid arthritis)、發炎性腸道疾病 (inflammatory bowel disease)、紅斑性狼瘡 (lupus)等自體免疫疾等病患。

About 3% of U.S. adults have weakened immune systems. Among them are people with HIV or AIDS, transplant recipients, some cancer patients, and people with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and lupus.

COVID-19疫苗雖沒有針對大批免疫系統衰弱的族群做過研究,然而從過去流感疫苗與肺炎疫苗有限的資料和經驗可判斷,疫苗接種效果可能不如身體較為健康的一般大眾。這也意味著免疫力不足的民眾外出時仍應戴口罩並避免人群接觸,做好防護措施。

COVID-19 shots weren’t studied in large numbers of people with weak immune systems. But limited data and experience with flu and pneumonia vaccines suggest they won’t work as well as they do in others. That means people with weakened immune systems should keep taking precautions like wearing masks and avoiding large crowds.

位於西雅圖華盛頓大學醫學院的器官移植專家Ajit Limaye醫師指出:「接種疫苗後仍需保持未接種前的防疫習慣 (例如保持社交距離和戴口罩),才能真正降低感染風險。」

“It’s prudent to use all the precautions you were using before you were vaccinated,” said Dr. Ajit Limaye, a transplant expert at the University of Washington Medicine in Seattle.

雖然大部分的癌症患者都應盡快接種疫苗,但是根據美國國家癌症資訊網所述,接受骨髓移植 (stem cell transplant) 或CAR-T細胞治療 (CAR T-cell therapy)病患應該在治療三個月後再接種,才能確保疫苗達到最大效果。

Although most cancer patients should get vaccinated as soon as they can, people getting stem cell transplants or CAR T-cell therapy should wait at least three months after treatment to get vaccinated, according to guidance from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. That delay will make sure the vaccines work as well as they can.

而學者仍在研究多施打一劑疫苗是否能對接受器官移植的病患產生較好的保護效果。

For transplant recipients, researchers are looking at whether an extra dose might make the vaccines more effective.

法國建議針對器官移植等免疫功能低下的病患施打第三劑疫苗,而以色列最近也針對該族群多施打一劑輝瑞(Pfizer)疫苗。

French guidelines recommend a third COVID-19 dose for the immunocompromised, including organ recipients. Israel recently began giving an extra dose of the Pfizer vaccine to transplant patients and others with weak immune systems.

在美國,即便政府尚未正式授權,已有部分接受器官移植治療的民眾為了尋求更高的保護力,正在找尋接種第三劑的管道。

Some U.S. transplant recipients seek out a third dose on their own in hopes of more protection even though the federal government hasn’t authorized extra vaccinations.