接種疫苗為何會有副作用? 專家曝:免疫系統抵禦現象|Why do some people get side effects after COVID-19 vaccines?

Why do some people get side effects after COVID-19 vaccines? (AP Illustration/Peter Hamlin)

【看CP學英文】暫時性的副作用如頭痛、身體痠痛、發燒皆為免疫系統啟動的跡象,是對接種疫苗常見的反應。

Temporary side effects including headache, fatigue, and fever are signs the immune system is revving up — a normal response to vaccines. And they’re common.

美國食藥署疫苗主管彼得.馬克斯醫生(Dr. Peter Marks)表示,「接種這些疫苗後的第二天,我不會計劃任何劇烈活動」,並表示自己在接種第一劑後感到非常疲勞。

“The day after getting these vaccines, I wouldn’t plan anything that was strenuous physical activity,” said Dr. Peter Marks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s vaccine chief, who experienced fatigue after his first dose.

美聯社報導指出,免疫系統有兩個主要抵禦功能,一旦身體檢測到有外來源入侵,其中一個功能就會啟動。白細胞蜂擁而至,引發發炎,造成寒顫、酸痛、疲勞和其他副作用。

Here’s what’s happening: The immune system has two main arms, and the first kicks in as soon as the body detects a foreign intruder. White blood cells swarm to the site, prompting inflammation that’s responsible for chills, soreness, fatigue, and other side effects.

此免疫系統的快速反應往往會隨著年齡的增長而減弱,這是年輕人比老年人更容易發生副作用的原因之一。此外,某些疫苗會比其他疫苗引起更多的副作用。

This rapid-response step of your immune system tends to wane with age, one reason younger people report side effects more often than older adults. Also, some vaccines simply elicit more reactions than others.

也就是說,每個人的身體反應都不同。如果在施打疫苗後的一兩天內沒有任何異狀,這並不意味著疫苗沒有發揮作用,這些疫苗在人體內啟動了免疫系統的第二部分,它透過產生抗體成為人體對抗病毒的利器。

That said, everyone reacts differently. If you didn’t feel anything a day or two after either dose, that doesn’t mean the vaccine isn’t working. Behind the scenes, the shots also set in motion the second part of your immune system, which will provide the real protection from the virus by producing antibodies.

而另一個造成困擾的副作用是,隨著免疫系統的活躍,它有時也會導致淋巴結的暫時腫脹,如手臂下的淋巴結。專家建議女性在接種COVID-19(新冠肺炎)疫苗之前安排常規乳房檢查,以避免腫脹的現象被誤認為是癌症。

Another nuisance side effect: As the immune system activates, it also sometimes causes temporary swelling in lymph nodes, such as those under the arm. Women are encouraged to schedule routine mammograms ahead of COVID-19 vaccination to avoid a swollen node being mistaken for cancer.

然而並非所有的副作用都是正常現象。在世界各地施打了數以億計的疫苗劑量之後,透過密集的安全監測發現嚴重的風險比例並不高。

Not all side effects are routine. But after hundreds of millions of vaccine doses administered around the world — and intense safety monitoring — few serious risks have been identified.

在接種阿斯特捷利康(AstraZeneca)製藥公司和嬌生集團((Johnson & Johnson))生產的疫苗的人中,有極少數人發現了一種不尋常的血凝塊。有些國家考量到老年人的身體狀況預留了這些疫苗,而監管當局也表示提供這些疫苗的好處仍然大於風險。

A tiny percentage of people who got vaccines made by AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson reported an unusual type of blood clot. Some countries reserved those shots for older adults but regulatory authorities say the benefits of offering them still outweigh the risks.

有些人在接種疫苗後也有嚴重的過敏反應。這就是為什麼在接種任何類型的COVID-19(新冠肺炎)疫苗後必須在現場待上大約15分鐘,以確保任何症狀都能得到及時治療。

People also occasionally have serious allergic reactions. That’s why you’re asked to stick around for about 15 minutes after getting any type of COVID-19 vaccine — to ensure any reaction can be promptly treated.

最後,美國當局也正試圖確認此類型的感染引起暫時性心臟疾病是否可能是接種mRNA疫苗(BNT與Moderna兩種疫苗)之後的罕見副作用。美國衛生官員還不能確定是否有關聯,但他們表示目前正在監測少量的報告,大多數年齡層落在青少年或壯年。

Finally, authorities are trying to determine whether temporary heart inflammation that can occur with many types of infections also might be a rare side effect after the mRNA vaccines, the kind made by Pfizer and Moderna. U.S. health officials can’t yet tell if there’s a link but say they’re monitoring a small number of reports, mostly male teens or young adults.