氣候變遷導致環境惡化 綠色和平籲政府拯救珊瑚礁|Greenpeace Taipei advocates for Taiwan to take action on coral bleaching

【看CP學英文】國際環保組織「綠色和平」(Greenpeace) 近日發現台灣四周大量的珊瑚礁已白化,而此異象使他們對於珊瑚礁生態感到不安,呼籲台灣政府盡快採取行動。

Greenpeace Taipei (綠色和平), an international environmental organization has discovered that many coral reefs around Taiwan has been hit by coral bleaching which led them to raise awareness about coral bleaching and urge the Taiwanese government to take action.

珊瑚礁是海洋生態循環重要的一環,為海洋中的物種(如魚類)提供食物來源與庇護所,但目前大多數人並未意識到珊瑚礁生態的重要性。隨著全球暖化日益嚴重,海洋溫度上升也造成多數珊瑚死亡。

Many people are unaware of the importance of coral reefs. Coral reefs are marine ecosystems that provide food and shelter for many different marine species, like fish. However, as global warming worsens, the ocean’s temperature rises, causing many corals to die.

根據台北綠色和平組織(Greenpeace Taipei)表示,珊瑚出現白化病徵可能是由氣候環境的劇烈變化所引起,其中包括水溫、酸鹼ph值及水的混濁度。當珊瑚的海洋環境不足以滿足需求時,珊瑚將開始失去顏色,導致其逐漸呈現白化現象。

According to Greenpeace Taipei(台北綠色和平組織), coral bleaching can be caused by drastic changes in environmental conditions which include water temperatures, pH values, and turbidity. When the environment of the coral does not meet its needs, the coral will begin losing its color sources causing it to gradually bleach.

台灣的海洋溫度在2020年時創下了攝氏30度的歷史新高溫,也因為颱風的形成次數減少,導致海洋溫度上升。

In 2020, Taiwan’s sea temperatures were at a record high of 30°C. There were also fewer typhoons which caused the temperature of the ocean to rise.

珊瑚白化在很大的程度上影響著海洋生態系統,許多生物可能會隨著珊瑚死亡,而海岸侵蝕是由海平面上升、巨浪、海岸洪水所造成,珊瑚具有抵禦海岸侵蝕的功能,若是數量減少,將導致台灣海岸侵蝕現象日益嚴重。

Marine ecosystems are largely affected by coral bleaching. Many fish may also die along with the coral because they do not have an adequate environment to live in. Corals also substantially reduce coastal erosion which is caused by rising sea levels, strong waves, and coastal flooding. If the corals die, then Taiwan would be faced with more coastal erosion.

珊瑚白化不只影響生態環境,也可能影響到旅遊業的發展,部分旅遊業利用珊瑚礁觀光獲取收入,由於珊瑚正在減少,遊客花錢潛水的意願可能會降低。

Not only does coral bleaching affect its environment, but it also affects tourism. The tourism industry earns revenue through coral reefs. As the corals are deteriorating, tourists would less likely want to pay for scuba diving tours.

台北綠色和平組織的資深影音製作人邱聰榮花了六個月的時間記錄台灣的珊瑚礁變化狀況,紀錄範圍主要涵蓋台灣西南海岸的琉球嶼、墾丁及綠島。

Over a course of sixth months, Greenpeace Taipei’s project director, Yves Chiu (邱聰榮) documented the coral reefs in Taiwan which were mostly located in Liuqiu Island (琉球嶼) off the southwest coast of Taiwan, Kenting (墾丁) and Green Island (綠島).

邱聰榮表示,他透過潛水拍攝照片來記錄珊瑚礁的生態,潛水行程結束1至2週後會收到珊瑚的照片,與健康的珊瑚照片進行對比獲得研究數據。

Chiu managed to document the coral reefs in Taiwan through scuba diving and taking pictures of the coral reefs. After each diving session, Chiu will receive the coral pictures one to two weeks later. He will then study and compare the pictures he took to pictures of healthy coral.

另外,美國國家海洋暨大氣總署(NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)於2021年七月召開新聞發布會,會中討論台灣珊瑚白化的嚴重程度。美國國家海洋暨大氣總署使用衛星監測海面溫度、追蹤因水溫較高可能導致珊瑚白化的地區。

To add on, in July this year, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) held a press conference discussing the severity of coral bleaching in Taiwan.

The NOAA uses satellites to monitor sea surface temperature and keep track of areas with higher water temperatures that may cause coral bleaching.

台北綠色和平組織認為,政府應立即採取行動,為海洋保護區(MPA)設定界線,計畫更完善的氣候與能源政策,使用可再生能源並減少碳排放。

Greenpeace Taipei believes that the government should take action by setting boundaries for marine protected areas (MPA), enforcing more proactive climate and energy policies, reducing carbon emissions, and using renewable energies.

邱聰榮表示,「政府應該立即制訂保護海洋免受汙染和阻擋外來源影響的政策,以進一步提高珊瑚恢復的機會」。

“The government should implement policies that protect the ocean from pollution and other external sources to further enhance a chance at recovery,” Chiu said.

此外,邱聰榮提到,台北綠色和平組織希望政府能夠支持他們預定的「2050年前實現零碳排放量」的目標。

In addition, Chiu mentioned that Greenpeace Taipei hopes that the government can support their goal of achieving zero carbon emissions by 2050.

近期台北綠色和平組織也進行一項民意調查,他們發現近90%的民眾都知道氣候變遷,但只有20%的人知曉政府的減少碳排放量目標。因此台北綠色和平組織認為政府應該多加宣導他們的減少碳排放量計畫,並制定有效的碳定價(Carbon Pricing)機制,以減少溫室氣體的排放。

Greenpeace Taipei recently did a poll and found that 90% of people are aware of climate change but only 20% of people know the government’s carbon reduction goal. As a result, they believe the government should spread awareness about their carbon reduction plan and formulate an effective carbon pricing mechanism in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

另外,台北綠色和平組織也建議,民眾前往海邊時可多加利用節能電器、電風扇、非化學或天然的防曬乳,購買二手物品、乘坐大眾運輸工具,這些行為可以為拯救珊瑚礁白化作出貢獻。而最理想的情況是,民眾都多盡一份心,減少不必要的外出,盡量讓空調溫度不低於攝氏26度。

The organization advises people to use energy-efficient appliances, electric fans, non-chemical or natural sunscreens when going to the beach, buy second-hand items, and take public transport so they can contribute to saving coral reefs from bleaching. Ideally, it would also help if people reduce any unnecessary traveling and try to not keep their AC lower than 26°C.