提倡港口設祈禱室給外籍漁工,他說:「心理健康需要重視」| Rerum Novarum Center calls for installation of prayer rooms for Muslim migrant fishermen

Su-ao port shows the cramped living conditions for foreign fishermen in Taiwan. (Photo courtesy of 4-Way Voice)

【看CP學英文】台灣四面環海,漁業資源相當豐富,然而漁工短缺,近年來都透過引進外籍漁工來支撐台灣漁業。

Taiwan is surrounded by sea and has abundant fishery resources, but there is a shortage of fishermen; therefore, in recent years, foreign fishermen have been brought in to support Taiwan’s fishing industry.

監察院報告,迄2020年9月底,台灣遠洋漁船計1106艘、境外聘僱外籍漁工人數約2萬2000人,這些漁船在世界三大洋作業、使用全球32個港口,不過,台灣的漁工權益卻讓國外政府和非營利組織都相當關切,美國去年(2020)公布第9版「童工或強迫勞動生產之貨品清單」,首度將我國遠洋漁獲列入清單,目前美國、加拿大及墨西哥明文禁止強迫勞動生產之商品進口。

According to a report published by the Control Yuan (監察院), as of the end of September 2020, there were 1,106 offshore fishing vessels in Taiwan and 22,000 migrant fishermen were employed outside of Taiwan.

These fishing vessels operate in three oceans and use 32 ports worldwide. However, the rights of Taiwan’s fishermen are of great concern to foreign governments and non-profit organizations.

The U.S. published the 9th edition of the “List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor” in 2020, which marks the first time Taiwan’s offshore fishing was included.

Currently, the United States, Canada, and Mexico explicitly prohibit the importation of goods produced by forced labor.

外籍漁工們長期駐紮在港口,除了高工時和低薪,有些漁工被雇主偷騙薪水,有些漁工只能住在漁船上,一開始連洗澡的地方都沒有,無論冬天還夏天,都只能在港口邊沖澡。

In addition to the high working hours and low pay, some fishermen were cheated by their employers and others had to live on the fishing boats.

In the beginning, there was not even a place to take a shower, no matter in winter or summer, and fishermen could only take showers at the port.

「這對外籍漁工來說,不只是身體上的折磨,心理上更不舒服。」長期探訪漁工的新事社會服務中心漁工組專員李正新說。

Rerum Novarum Center Fishermen Service Section member Jason Lee (李正新) remarked,

“This is not only physically torturous for the migrant fishermen, but also affects them psychologically.

「有些漁港還是觀光大港,你想旁邊有時經過年輕女孩或小孩,要工作一整天卻必須露天洗澡的漁工情何以堪?」

“Some of the fishing ports are also big tourist hot spots, so how do you think the fishermen will feel after working for hours on end and having to take a shower in the open where women and children pass by?” Lee asked.

許多非營利組織紛紛提倡要在港邊設置盥洗室,但李正新卻認為除了盥洗室,祈禱也相當重要。

To this, many non-profit organizations have advocated for a washroom at the harbor, but Lee believes that in addition to a washroom, installing a prayer room is also important.

曾經旅居印尼11年的李正新時常跟印尼漁工溝通了解狀況,他發現一些小港的外籍漁工總訴說著,希望能夠像大港一樣,在港邊有提供熱水的洗澡間及乾淨的祈禱室,但這些希望總是說說就覺得算了,他們認為沒人會去注意到小漁港的外籍漁工,更何況港邊的設施。

Lee, who had lived in Indonesia for 11 years, often communicates with Indonesian fishermen to understand the situation.

He found out that some migrant fishermen in small ports often express wishes that they could have bathrooms that had hot running water and clean prayer rooms like the big ports do.

However, these hopes are often unrealized. Some fishermen believe that no one will notice the migrant fishermen in small fishing ports, not to mention notice the absence of harborside facilities.

曾經在異鄉漂泊的李正新覺得,一個人或許可以偶爾忍受身體上的折磨,但信仰被阻礙反而更容易使人崩潰。

Lee, who knows what it was like living in a foreign country, feels that one may be able to endure physical torture once in a while, but being restricted from manifesting one’s faith is more likely to cause someone to break down in the long run.

「我是虔誠基督徒,在印尼工作的時候也會有想家或辛苦的時候,那時候我都會跟上帝祈禱。所以我很能理解外籍漁工想維持信仰的心情。」

“I’m a devout Christian, and whenever I felt homesick or had a hard time while working in Indonesia, I would pray to God. So I understand the migrant fishermen’s desire to maintain their faith,” Lee said.

李正新說,外籍漁工絕大部分來自於印尼,許多印尼籍外籍漁工的宗教信仰是伊斯蘭教,也就是俗稱的回教。

Lee said the vast majority of migrant fishermen come from Indonesia, and the religion of many Indonesian migrant fishermen is Islam.

本正常每天應當有五次面向麥加方向祈禱敬拜,祈禱敬拜時應當潔淨自身的口鼻耳及手腳,在一個乾淨的室內地方進行祈禱。但是目前在台灣工作的外籍漁工,他們的工作及生活居住都是在船上,礙於工作的忙碌和船上狹小的空間,因此祈禱及盥洗只能在甲板上

For Muslims, it is normal to pray and worship five times a day in the direction of Mecca. When praying and worshiping, one should clean one’s mouth, nose, ears, hands, and feet and pray in a clean, indoor place.

However, migrant fishermen working in Taiwan work and live on the ship. In addition, due to their busy schedules and the small space on the ship, they can only pray and wash on the deck.

有時候只能有一次的祈禱,但若是時間允許,他們也是會完成每日五次的祈禱,透過祈禱安穩自己的身心靈,祈求阿拉可以保佑他們在異鄉的一切平安,直到返國與家人再次團聚。

Sometimes they can only have one prayer, but if time allows, they will complete five daily prayers and find solace through praying to Allah to keep them safe in this foreign land until they return home and reunite with their families.

因為聽到訴求,新事開始規劃、進行調查,實地走訪、勘查直接服務有外籍漁工的二十一個漁港,訪談了102位漁工,了解各港內漁工們祈禱及盥洗的實際狀況並收集他們的意見,同時查看港內適合設置盥洗室和祈禱室的位置,過程中所遇到的漁工們個個都帶著靦腆的笑容,讓新事的社工們相當心疼,認為他們即便遭遇挫折,仍然強忍,令人不捨。

After hearing of the fishermen’s simple requests, Rerum Novarum Center visited and surveyed the 21 fishing ports that directly serve migrant fishermen and interviewed 102 fishermen to understand the actual situation of praying and washing in each port and to collect their opinions.

At the same time, they check for suitable locations to set up washrooms and prayer rooms in the harbor.

The fishermen they met during the process were all bashful and smiling, which left a huge impression on the Rerum Novarum Center workers as they saw them persevering even though they encountered setbacks.

Members of the Rerum Novarum Center helping out migrant fishermen. (Photo courtesy of Rerum Novarum Center via 4-Way Voice)

不只民間呼籲重視漁工權益,政府監察委員王幼玲、王美玉、蔡崇義調查並訪談外籍漁工後發現,台灣遠洋漁船外籍漁工確實有曾遭受薪資剋扣、工時過長、身分證件遭扣留、仲介強迫簽剝削契約等事情,監察院糾正漁業署、勞動部與外交部共三部會,要求行政院正視遠洋漁船外籍漁工的勞權。

Not only did the public call for officials to remedy fishermen’s rights, but Control Yuan members Wang You-ling (王幼玲), Wang Mei-yu (王美玉), and Tsai Chung-yi (蔡崇義) also investigated and interviewed migrant fishermen and found that those on offshore fishing vessels had indeed been subjected to wage deductions, excessively long working hours, withholding of identity documents, and forced to sign exploitative contracts by agents.

The Control Yuan called on three ministries, namely the Fisheries Agency, the Ministry of Labor (MOL, 勞動部) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA, 外交部), and requested the Executive Yuan to look into the labor rights of migrant fishermen on offshore fishing vessels.

綠色和平組織發言人則指出,應廢除境外聘僱制度,目前遠洋漁船上的外籍漁工多屬於境外聘雇,毫無勞工權益和保障。勞動部應以《勞基法》保障所有外籍漁工,與本籍漁工享有同樣的照顧。

A spokesman for Greenpeace said that the system of foreign employment should be abolished, as most migrant fishermen on offshore fishing vessels are currently employed outside the country and have no labor rights or protection.

They added that the MOL should enforce the “Labor Standards Act” to ensure that all migrant fishermen enjoy the same level of care as local fishermen.

在過渡期間,漁業署必須確保業者完全遵守《境外僱用非我國籍船員許可及管理辦法》,尤其是薪資應完全給付、禁止任意苛扣、境外漁工保險金額的給付應盡速且完全,以及外籍漁工的管理應該完全交由政府機構負責。

During the transition period, the Fisheries Agency must ensure that the operators fully comply with the corresponding laws (境外僱用非我國籍船員許可及管理辦法), and should make sure that wages be fully paid, arbitrary deductions from their salaries are prohibited, insurance coverage for overseas workers should be paid as quickly and fully as possible, and the management of foreign workers should be left entirely to government agencies.