家務移工不受勞基法保障 低薪模式恐衝擊移工來台意願?|Will low wages result in caregiver shortages in Taiwan?

"Taiwan's aging population will not slow down and the demand for caregivers will only increase. The government should reform the current system and enact legislation to protect the labor rights of domestic workers." (Photo courtesy of 4-Way Voice)

【看CP學英文】台灣行政院拍板定案基本工資調幅5.21%,明年起,基本工資月薪將從現行的24,000元調升至25,250元,但台灣有超過23萬家務移工卻不受《勞基法》保障,基本工資仍停留在17,000元,且連續六年未漲,與產業移工、本勞的勞動待遇差距逐年拉大。

The Executive Yuan recently decided to increase the minimum wage by 5.21%, meaning starting in 2022, the monthly minimum wage will be increased from the current NT$24,000 to NT$25,250.

However, more than 230,000 domestic migrant workers in Taiwan are not protected by the Labor Standards Act (勞動基準法), and their basic wage remains at NT$17,000, which has not been increased for six consecutive years.

Thus, the gap between the labor treatment of migrant workers and local workers is widening year by year.

這樣的低薪模式是否將影響台灣未來與其他國家競爭移工的引進?學者、NGO人士及移工團體代表各自向《四方報》分享了他們的觀點。

Will such a low-wage model affect Taiwan’s ability to compete with other countries for the introduction of migrant workers in the future? Scholars, non-governmental organizations, and migrant workers’ groups shared their views on the nation-wide issue.

中正大學法律系教授周兆昱指出,包括日本及韓國都已經加入東南亞國家移工爭奪戰,工資水準遠高於台灣的國際情勢下,我國持續實施外籍家庭看護工低薪政策,非常不利吸引優秀人才來台灣工作。

National Chung Cheng University (CCU, 國立中正大學) law professor Chou Chao-yu (周兆昱)pointed out that Japan and Korea have both joined the battle for migrant workers in Southeast Asian countries, and their minimum wages are much higher than that in Taiwan.

Therefore, if Taiwan’s low wages for foreign family care workers continue, the situation will become even more unfavorable and will fail to attract talented people to work in Taiwan.

更何況,日本甚至於可以給予取得其國內看護服務專業資格(日文稱為介護福祉士,須要通過國家考試之專業證照)之外籍移工永住權,以爭取菲律賓、越南、印尼等國之專業看護服務人員前往日本工作。

What’s more, Japan can even grant permanent residency to foreign immigrant workers who have obtained professional qualifications in domestic nursing services (known in Japanese as nursing welfare workers— a professional license that requires passing a national examination).

This is provided to attract professional nursing staff from countries such as the Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia to work in Japan.

相較之下,我國家庭看護工只能領取低薪,又無取得永久居留權之可能性,對於移工而言實在欠缺吸引力。

In contrast, domestic caregivers in Taiwan receive low wages and have no possibility of obtaining permanent residency, which is not attractive to migrant workers.

桃園市家庭看護工職業工會(Domestic Caretaker UNION)領袖之一的Bonang Sanchez向《四方報》表示,「我們每天幾乎是24小時待命,沒有休假日,要為長輩把屎把尿,難道就只值1萬7000元的基本工資嗎?這麼辛苦又廉價的勞動水準,幾乎沒有台灣年輕人會願意做」。

Bonang Sanchez, one of the leaders of the Domestic Caretaker UNION in Taoyuan City explained, “We are on call almost 24 hours a day, with no days off, and we have to take care of the elders feces and urine.”

“This is such a hard form of labor that almost no young people in Taiwan would be willing to do; in this case, are we only worth NT$17,000 of minimum wage?”

他更指出,台灣的看護人力吃緊,目前外籍看護首要來源國是印尼,菲律賓的相對少,就是因為菲律賓移工會說英語,可以前往更先進的國家求職,未來政策若持續不改善,台灣政府將更難吸引到條件好的移工。

He also pointed out that Taiwan’s manpower in the long-term caregiver sector is tight, with the primary source of foreign nurses currently in Taiwan hailing from Indonesia.

On the other hand, domestic caregivers from the Philippines are a relatively small pool, as they can usually speak English, and can go to more advanced countries to seek employment.

If the policy is not improved in the future, the Taiwanese government will find itself in a tough situation where it will be more difficult to attract qualified migrant workers.

「台灣社會人口老化的問題不會減緩,對看護工的需求只會越來越大,政府應該改革現行制度,並立法保障家務移工的勞動權益」。

“Taiwan’s aging population will not slow down and the demand for caregivers will only increase. The government should reform the current system and enact legislation to protect the labor rights of domestic workers,” Sanchez added.

印尼勞工團結組織(GANAS COMMUNITY)的代表Fajar則表示,許多印尼移工來台前根本不曉得家務移工的真實勞動情況和相關法律,只是單純相信在台灣能找到更好的工作,因此儘管待遇差、不受勞基法保障,對印尼移工來台工作的意願影響也不大。

Another representative of the Indonesian labor organization GANAS COMMUNITY Fajar said that many Indonesian migrant workers do not know the real labor situation and related laws of domestic migrant workers before coming to Taiwan, but simply believe that they can find a better job in Taiwan.

Therefore, even though they are poorly treated and are not protected by the Labor Standards Act, it has little impact on the willingness of Indonesian migrant workers to come to work in Taiwan.

桃園市群眾服務協會移工政策處主任汪英達則分析,台灣的低薪模式的確會過濾掉一些移工來台的意願,但對於一些無條件前往其他國家的移工而言,仍然只能留在台灣忍受當前的勞動待遇。

The Director of Migrant Worker Policy Division of Taoyuan City’s Serve the People Association, Mr. Wong Ying-Dah (汪英達), analyzed that Taiwan’s low wage model will indeed filter out some migrant workers’ willingness to come to Taiwan; however, for some migrant workers who are not qualified enough to go to other countries, they will still stay in Taiwan to endure the current labor treatment.

「日本和韓國給移工的待遇較高,但門檻也較高,往往還有語言能力的要求,因此比較年輕、能力好的移工的確會往日本或韓國跑;但許多沒有很高的學歷背景或專業技術的移工,就只能退而求其次,留在要求較低的台灣」。

“Japan and Korea offer higher wages to migrant workers, but the threshold is also higher, and language skills are often required,” Wong said.

“However, many migrant workers who do not come from an academic background, have not received higher education or have no professional skills will have to settle for the second-best and stay in Taiwan, where the requirements are lower.”

他也指出,由於某些產業存在年齡歧視,因此不少廠工在年紀到了之後被產業淘汰,只能改做家務移工,因為家務工沒有年齡限制。「台灣家務移工糟糕的勞動條件固然會產生一些淘汰效應,但悲哀的是,仍然會有移工沒能力前往日本韓國,最後沒有選擇只能留在台灣當看護工,因此一時之間並不會顯著的衝擊台灣長照人力需求」。

He also pointed out that because of age discrimination in some industries, many factory workers are eliminated from the industry when they reach a certain age and have to switch to domestic work because there is no age limit for domestic workers.

“The poor labor conditions of domestic migrant workers in Taiwan will certainly have some elimination effect, but sadly, there will still be migrant workers who cannot afford to go to Japan and Korea and have no choice but to stay in Taiwan to work as caregivers; therefore, there will not be a significant impact on the demand for long-term care manpower in Taiwan for a while.”